Prevalence Of Metabolic Disorders In Paediatric Age Group with Renal Stone Diseases.
Background: Urolithiasis ranks as the third most prevalent condition among urological disorders, behind urinary tract infections and prostaterelated ailments. The etiology of varied, ranging from metabolic illnesses to environmental variables and individual lifestyle practices.The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in pediatric populations is quite low; nonetheless, there is evidence to suggest an increasing incidence of this health condition in children. The incidence of kidney stone diseases is increasing in young individuals, while the prevalence remains lower compared to adults. The complex nature of these circumstances is underscored by the interplay between metabolic disorders such as hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and hyperoxaluria. The process of stone production is subject to several factors, including as genetic predisposition, familial background, and dietary preferences. In the prompt identification and management of kidney stones, a commonly employed approach involves the implementation of a comprehensive strategy that addresses both the stones themselves and the underlying metabolic issues. The imperative to persist in doing research in the field of Pediatric Urology remains crucial in order to enhance understanding and refine treatment methodologies within the dynamic landscape of contemporary medicine.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in young children with urolithiasis .
Study design: A Retrospective Study
Duration and place of study: Main Gul Jehanzeb Hospital in Swat, Pakistan, between January 2018 and January 2019.
Methods: Between April 2018 and August 2019, the Department of Urology at Bacha Khan Medical College in Mardan conducted a
retrospective investigation. The study involved the analysis of medical records belonging to 59 individuals aged 15 years or younger who had been diagnosed with renal stone disease. Various parameters, including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), creatinine levels, serum calcium, phosphate levels, uric acid levels, 24-hour urine volume, and urine electrolyte levels, were collected and thoroughly examined. The identification of metabolic diseases was carried out in accordance with established laboratory standards. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22.
Results: Fifty-nine individuals in all, whose ages ranged from 8 to 15, were enrolled in this research. Of them, 25 (42.4%) were female, and 34 (57.6%) were male. The patients had a mean BMI of 16.68 kg/m2. Thirty-two patients (54.2%) exhibited metabolic abnormalities linked to renal stone disease, according to the findings of the metabolic examination. Hyperuricemia (22%), hypercalciuria (25.4%), and
hypokalemia (40.7%) were the three most prevalent disorders. Identified. Hyperphosphaturia (1.7%), hypocitraturia (1.7%), yperoxaluria (3%), and low urine volume (6.8%) were also discovered as other metabolic abnormalities.
Conclusion: According to this research, there were related metabolic disorders in a sizable percentage (54.2%) of children with renal stone disease. Hypokalemia was the most common metabolic abnormality in children (40.7%), followed by hypercalciuria (25.4%) and
hyperuricemia (22%). These results highlight the need to thoroughly examine a child's metabolism when they have renal stone disease. To develop preventative and therapeutic methods to lower the incidence of these problems, further research is required to examine the relationship between metabolic disorders and renal stone formation in children.
Keywords: Metabolic disorders in children, kidney stones, hypercalciuria, hypokalemia, hyperuricemia